Categories
Blog Elastix Support

Elastix changes and what it means

This week, significant changes at Elastix were announced, including the involvement of 3CX and the removal of key Elastix versions for download. Since those announcements, many things have been written by many people, and this has left some folks wondering what happened. Sangoma would like to reinforce its commitment to open source, this open letter from Sangoma, will provide our own clarity about how these events affect or involve Sangoma. Sangoma are a professional, global, growing, profitable, engineering-focused, publicly traded company, and this is the only reliable source of information to understand how those recent events affect or involve Sangoma. Other commentary released by other third parties about Sangoma, is not to be relied upon.

Everyone comes to open source software for their own reasons: software developers to do what they love; some to earn a livelihood; manufacturers to augment the project and sell their wares; and most importantly community members to find flexible/cost effective/well-supported solutions to their ‘business problem’ (in our case, for UC/Telecom/PBX needs). In the end, the good projects build something bigger than themselves… a community, a solution, and an opportunity for end users to utilize the project to build their own businesses. Over the course of a project many people will enter and exit those communities as their needs change.

As the primary investor in and developers of FreePBX, Sangoma actively works with many different members of the Open Source Telephony (OST) community, including Asterisk Developers, other FreePBX-based distros (including Elastix!), and many third-party hardware/software developers and manufacturers. As just one example, we have a great relationship with Digium and talk with them on an almost weekly basis, even though many consider us competitors. This may seem surprising to some, as many folks would think we might be bitter enemies. In fact, the opposite is true…we encourage and help those products to compete in the marketplace on their own merits. And this is entirely consistent with the commitment Sangoma has demonstrated to open source for many, many years over the time when we worked hard to also make Asterisk better. When Sangoma took over stewardship of FreePBX, we reiterated this statement clearly and unequivocally.

So Sangoma continues to work very hard every day, and invests many millions of dollars each year, in order to build strong relationships and to benefit to the entire open source telephony community. There is a saying that ‘a rising tide lifts all boats.’ Thus, it is usually counter-productive for open source contributors to battle with each other. In other words, there is no reason for them to fight over the same slice of pie, when there is an entire cake that no one is touching.

Their approach was no different with Elastix. For over a decade, Sangoma has been a direct supporter of Elastix, in many, many different ways, visiting them in Ecuador many times. They supported the project financially, They attended/exhibited/supported/spoke at multiple ElastixWorld events over many years, They cooperated with their distribution partners who also supported Elastix, They invested in R&D to ensure their products (software and hardware) were compatible with Elastix, etc. The list goes on and on.They had (and hope, still have), excellent relationships between the companies, in all parts of the organizations right up to the CEO level of both companies.

With recent changes at Elastix, some people/blogs/websites have made comments which claim that the removal of Elastix downloads of version 4 or MT, was in some way caused by Sangoma/FreePBX, due to concerns about compliance with GPL conditions. That is not true and They wish to set the story straight.  Sangoma hold ourselves to high ethical standards, and as a publicly traded company as well, setting the record straight with facts and not rumours, is both important and required.

While it is indeed true that Sangoma pointed out to Elastix some time ago, that there was a copyright issue,They did so in a very friendly manner, with words carefully chosen to be respectful of the long term relationship between the companies, and critically, to ensure that this important relationship continued. It was a 2015 letter from CEO to CEO, and certainly did not suggest any legal action, since it was not that kind of letter at all…it was a positive, complementary letter seeking to deepen the relationship, not harm it. That letter was sent shortly after Sangoma acquired FreePBX, when they made it a priority to reach out to PaloSanto to reinforce that the Elastix Project was a valuable strategic partner to Sangoma. It was in no way threatening, did not ask for, was not intended to, and given it was 2015, did not cause any versions of Elastix to be withdrawn. Elastix decision this week to shutdown these versions is a business decision not a response to Sangoma. While it seems that these days, the number of open source projects that remain truly open source is definitely on the decline, Sangoma’s commitment to open source remains as true today, as always.

And while it is admittedly a little unusual for companies to do so, in this case, for full transparency to the open source communities that they respect so very much (and to dispel any untrue rumours or claims), the entire letter is available. They share it for those who need confirmation of the above statements, and to reassure the Elastix community that Sangoma continues to be committed to you as well as to the entire Latin America region (and would be honored to have you consider joining the family)

This page is a shorted and edited version of Sangoma’s announcement at https://www.freepbx.org/what-happened-to-elastix/  follow the link for the full version.

Categories
Asterisk Support Knowledge Base Security

Catching the IP of anonymous callers on Asterisk servers

Hi just sharing a simple bit of dialplan to catch anon callers ip addresses when using freepbx and Anonymous callers is set to yes, which is needed for some suppliers.

Normally I would say lock your firewall to only known IPs, but in some cases this isn’t possible

Im sure if you have a Asterisk server with a public IP you will have seen calls on the console screen where the call is to a destination but the callers are exten@yourserver . Well this little bit of dialplan at the end of you default sip context should catch them and log them with the ip of the originating server

In extensions_custom.conf add the dialplan below

[catchall]
exten => s,1,Noop(Dead calls rising)
exten => s,n,Set(uri=${SIPCHANINFO(uri)})
exten => s,n,Verbose(3,Unknown call from ${uri} to ${EXTEN})
exten => s,n,System(echo "[${STRFTIME(${EPOCH},,%b %d %H:%M:%S)}] SECURITY[] Unknown Call from ${CALLERIDNUM} to ${FROM_DID} IPdetails ${uri}" >> /var/log/asterisk/sipsec.log)
exten => s,n,Hangup()

Then in Custom Destinations add a destination as  catchall,s,1

so you now get in your logs

[May 1 00:11:06] SECURITY[] Unknown Call from  to 900441516014742 IPdetails sip:101@37.75.209.113:21896

 I hope this is some help to you, It allows other scripts to pick up this address and add it to your firewall.
Categories
FreePBX Software

FreeHMS , A Web based call management package for small Hotels and Serviced offices

FreeHMS is a web based call management package for small Hotels, Guest Houses and managed offices. It is designed to work with FreePBX and Asterisk.

It allows owners to bill guests or users for the phone usage allowing guests to make calls, setup wakeup calls and access voicemail. Rooms are initially blocked from calling other rooms but can call Admin extensions with out being checked in. When a room is checked in they can make trunk calls and set up wakeup calls. When checking out any wakeup calls are removed and the voicemail is defaulted and all Voicemail messages are deleted.

Setting up the system is simple for Installer with minimal changes to the dialplan which are included in the custom configuration file. The system can be set to any language as all text is from a single configuration file which also includes currency and tax rate for billing. Users are created in FreePBX user admin so are easily changed and added.

Call rates are set using the rates page only available to the Admin users

Administration is simple and password controlled using the ‘User Managment’ module of Freepbx so changes to rates and rooms can only be carried out by the admin users, Reception users can log guests in and out, Create Bills and mark rooms for cleaning as well as set or cancel wakeup calls, The Housekeeping login only allows setting of rooms clean or not*. If a room is not marked as clean then that room cannot be checked in.

The software is fully web based and can be used on PC, Mac, Tablet or even smartphone.

iphonehms

The software is OSS and can be customised to suit most customers.

Features Include:

Checkin /Checkout

Billing : Rates are set by the admin user only, Bill can printed with relevant sales tax added.

Cleaning : Rooms are marked unclean on checkout and can only be checked in when marked as clean by reception or the cleaning staff. A cleaning list can be printed off for stall without a tablet or smartphone.

The software is here to download  and as its released as OSS you can modify and extend it as you wish

For more details and pricing for complete system please email info@cyber-cottage.co.uk or call us.

If you just want the software its free to download,  Limited email support will be available, All we ask is if you add a feature or make a change let us have it so everyone can benefit from it.

Finally if there is a feature you want let us know how we can work with you to make it come about.

Categories
Knowledge Base Technical

Fortigate issues such as one way audio on Call Pickup With Hosted Asterisk and other problems.

We have noted that with some Fortigate routers and firewalls come with SIP helpers enabled by default.

The customer may initially not think that there is any issue and inbound and outbound calls work as expected, But we had noted on one customer site that when they did a call pickup on another phone that was ringing in the office they would not be able to hear the caller. The caller could hear them and if they put the call on and off hold they could speak normally.

On further  investigation with wireshark we noted that the RTP port changed when the pickup took place. We tested this on other sites not using the Fortigate hardware and did not have this issue.

Below are listed the commands to clear the SIP helper settings from the Fortigate hardware.

  1. Open the Fortigate CLI from the dashboard.
  2. Enter the following commands in FortiGate’s CLI:
    • config system settings
    • set sip-helper disable
    • set sip-nat-trace disable
    • reboot the device
  3. Reopen CLI and enter the following commands – do not enter the text after //:
    • config system session-helper
    • show    //locate the SIP entry, usually 12, but can vary.
    • delete 12     //or the number that you identified from the previous command.
  4. Disable RTP processing as follows:
    • config voip profile
    • edit default
    • config sip
    • set rtp disable
  5. And finally:
    • config system settings
    • set default-voip-alg-mode kernel-helper based
    • End

on a fortigate 200D the following is the method to use

Step 1) Removing the session helper.

Run the following commands:

config system session-helper
  show

Amongst the displayed settings will be one similar to the following example:

    edit 13
        set name sip
        set protocol 17
        set port 5060

In this example the next commands would be:

delete 13
end
Step 2) Change the default –voip –alg-mode.

Run the following commands:

config system settings
set default-voip-alg-mode kernel-helper based
end
Step 3) Either clear sessions or reboot to make sure changes take effect

a) To clear sessions

The command to clear sessions applies to ALL sessions unless a filter is applied, and therefore will interrupt traffic.

diagnose system session clear

Taken from

http://kb.fortinet.com/kb/documentLink.do?externalID=FD36405

Categories
Blog Knowledge Base

Planning for a Successful VoIP deployment

Before you deploy voice-over-IP or a Hosted PBX service in your office there are a few considerations you must first address.  Switching from traditional telephone service to voice-over-IP (VoIP) requires sufficient bandwidth, a proper switch and router, and a good battery backup solution to protect you from power failures.

The key voice-over-IP requirements discussed in this article are:

Bandwidth – Determining how much bandwidth you will need for voice-over-IP in your office is your first step.

The Router – Choosing a low quality or under performing router is a costly mistake which will degrade your call quality.

Quality of Service – You must decide whether voice traffic will be separated from regular internet users or if it will share the same network.

VoIP Equipment – There are many digital office phones, soft phones, headsets and telephone adapters on the market to choose from.

Power Failures – Voice over IP does not work when the power goes out so you should install a battery backup system and possibly a Power-over-Ethernet switch if your budget permits it.

How much bandwidth do I need?
Voice over IP needs a certain amount of bandwidth in order to keep your conversations clear and free of disruptions.  Bandwidth is the amount of information which your internet connection can send and receive in a certain period of time.  Your first step should be to use an online speed test to find out what your maximum upload stream and download stream is.  We suggest you do this test using a fixed connection to the internet rather than using your wifi (wireless) connection to get accurate results.  Try to use numerous tests during different times of the day to get a good average of what you can expect from your internet connection.  Bandwidth is normally measured in kbps or kilobits per second.
You will need to have a high speed (broadband) connection to use voice-over-IP.  A typical DSL connection will be rated at 600 kbps for the upload stream and 5000 kbps on the download stream.  You will notice that your upload stream is almost always smaller than your download stream which becomes your limiting factor for using VoIP service.
Your next step is to determine how many people in your office are likely going to be using the phone at the same time.  For instance, having ten people on the phone will require ten times as much bandwidth as having one person on the phone.  Below is a chart which will help you calculate how many people can be on the phone at one time:
Ask your voice-over-IP service provider what audio codecs they offer as there is a trade off between audio quality and bandwidth usage…

Full Quality Audio (G711 Codec)\- Uses 87 kbps for each concurrent phone call (NEB)
Compressed Audio (G729 Codec)\- Uses 33 kbps for each concurrent phone call (NEB)

So the calculation for a typical DSL connection would be:

DSL connection:600 kbps upload / 5000 kbps download
Gives us (Full Quality):600 kbps / 87 kbps = 6 concurrent calls
Gives us (Compressed Quality):600 kbps / 33 kbps = 18 concurrent calls

Notice we used the upload bandwidth in our calculation as this is the limiting factor for voice-over-IP.  You also don’t want to push your connection to the limit as most cable and DSL connections do not have guarantees in terms of how much bandwidth they will deliver.  If you Internet connection drops in bandwidth at some point during the day you don’t want your call quality to be affected.  Other factors affecting voice-over-IP are the latency of your connection and how much packet loss there is on it.

Choosing a router
A router is the device that connects all your computers and network equipment to your Internet connection.  It is an often overlooked piece of the puzzle that can have a major impact on the success or failure of your voice-over-IP implementation.  There are many routers on the market, some are very cheap (less than $40) and others can cost you thousands of dollars.  There is nothing worse than putting a poor quality or underpowered router in your office which could cause an otherwise good VoIP installation to go bad.
Your router needs to be powerful enough to handle the number of phones you will have in your office and should also work flawlessly with voice-over-IP equipment.  A good place to start when deciding on your router is to speak with your voice-over-IP service provider. We also recommend checking to make sure that your router is compatible with voice-over-IP services.
The following is a list items which will help you to determine whether your router is right for voice-over-IP:
How many voice-over-IP phones will you be connecting to the router? The more phones you will be connecting, the more powerful the router needs to be. Don’t use a £40 router to run an office with 10 IP Telephones.
Will your voice-over-IP phones have their own dedicated Internet connection? If not, a router with a quality of service (QoS) setting to prioritize voice traffic over regular traffic is an absolute must. Without QoS you will encounter poor quality telephone calls regularly.
What other functions will the router need to perform? You might need your router to handle VPN connections, allow wifi (wireless) connections or perform other tasks.
Make sure you can bridge your router to your modem. Routers that are not bridged can cause problems with voice-over-IP installations.
Never use more than one router or nat gateway on the network at a time as this will cause problems for IP Telephones when they attempt to do NAT.
Make sure your router is compatible.
It is always best to get a recommendation from your voice-over-IP service provider as some routers are known to perform very poorly with VoIP phones.

Quality of service
Call quality is a function of your network and the public internet. Some delays and network congestion cannot be avoided due to information traveling over the public internet while other types can be avoided. Good network design is critical to a stable and reliable voice-over-IP implementation.
Quality of service (QoS) refers to the ability for your router to prioritize voice traffic (VoIP) differently than regular internet traffic on your network or the separation of voice traffic.  Voice over ip is a real-time protocol which means that if information is lost or delayed it will result in a noticeable drop in call quality or a complete loss of it. Symptoms of network congestion include garbled audio, dropped calls and echo.   When setting up voice-over-IP in your office there are three possible ways handle voice traffic. Some customers report perfectly good results without any quality of service (especially in a small 1-2 person office) and others report worse results with quality of service enabled on their router as some routers do a poor job of implementing this. Generally speaking however the best way to deliver reliable voice-over-IP service is through a dedicated internet connection that is only used by the voice-over-IP equipment rather than sharing the internet with computers. Below are the different methods of doing quality of service:

No QoS – Voice traffic and regular internet traffic in your office are sharing the same internet connection.  No prioritization of voice traffic over regular traffic is being performed and thus there is the high potential that voice quality could be degraded if there is insufficient bandwidth for both voice and regular traffic. Some customers experience very few problems using this method while others report a high frequency of poor quality calls, dropped calls and garbled voices. It all depends on how much network congestion your office has. Most internet connections are more likely to be upload bound which generally results in people not being able to hear you, because all of your upload bandwidth is being consumed by something on your network.

Router enabled QoS – Voice traffic and regular internet traffic in your office are sharing the same internet connection, but your router is able to distinguish between voice traffic and regular internet traffic and give the voice traffic a higher priority.  The problem with this method is that routers can only prioritize upload bandwidth which means your voice will be clear but the router cannot ensure that download bandwidth will be prioritized. If employees on your network are downloading often this will cause a noticeable drop in call quality but this method is better than no quality of service. Some internet providers can prioritize the download bandwidth using TOS or COS methods from their end which will create an end to end quality of service solution. Most customers find that even prioritising upload bandwidth for voice-over-IP offers a dramatic improvement in call quality because most internet connections are limited by their upload bandwidth and have lots of download bandwidth free.

Separated Traffic – Voice traffic and regular internet traffic are separated onto two different internet connections and networks. This is especially critical for larger offices with 5 or more employees.  Voice traffic is carried on one internet connection and data from computers is carried on the other connection. In this case no prioritization is required by your router because voice traffic has its own dedicated internet connection.  This is the best way to ensure clear voice communications and the method we generally recommend customers whenever possible.

The method you decide on largely depends on how much bandwidth you have, what you are using your internet connection for besides voice-over-IP and the level of call quality desired.  Many offices report perfectly good results without using any QoS, while others find that it makes a major difference in the quality of their calls.

Choosing VoIP phones and equipment
Before deploying voice-over-IP in your office you will need to decide how each employee will be connected to your voice-over-IP provider.  There are many choices on the market today.
Digital IP Telephones – These types of phones look just like regular multi-line business telephones except that they connect directly to your internet connection using a network cable.
Soft Phones – A soft phone is a software program running on your computer that looks and feels just like a real telephone.  This requires you to purchase a USB headset which connects to your desktop or laptop so you can make and receive calls.
Wifi Phones – A wifi phone looks and feels very much like a regular cell phone except that it connects to your wireless router in the office.
Analog Telephone Adapters (ATA) – An ATA is a small box which connects to your router and allows you to plug in regular analog telephones so they can work with voice-over-IP.  ATAs are generally low cost alternatives to digital office phones and are easy to take with you when you travel.
Battery backup and Power-over-Ethernet
With voice-over-IP and most office telephone systems you must consider what happens when the power goes out.  For some offices this can be a regular occurrence and for others it might happen with a very low frequency.  Once of the things you will need to decide is whether or not you will install a battery backup system.
Here are a few important terms your should know:
Power over Ethernet (PoE) – Is a technology that allows VoIP over ip telephones to be powered using regular network cables rather than power adapters which plug into the wall.  This has the advantage that you can power all the phones in your office from a single source and makes installing a battery backup unit much easier.
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) – Is a device that powers your equipment when you lose power at the office.  The system has a built in battery which keeps your network devices operational when the power goes out.
The easiest way to protect your phone system from a power outage is to power all the phones using a Power-over-Ethernet switch that would normally be connected in the back room where your router and cable/DSL modem is located.  This has the advantage that all your phones are drawing power from a single source which you can backup using an uninterruptible power supply (UPS).  All you need to do is plug in your PoE switch, router, and DSL/cable modem into a sufficiently powerful UPS device so that when the power goes out all your phones remain up and running.

Categories
Asterisk Support Elastix Support Knowledge Base Support

Multiple Dynamic features with Asterisk Applicationmaps

Dynamic features are very useful for allowing users access to custom features during calls. These can be loaded individually via the dialplan, but in freepbx based solutions this will mean a bit of hacking of the dialplan using overides and making sure all still works afterwards, or as a global varible.

The easiest way is to load them as a global as is done with apprecord, But if you want to add lots of features then you will have to use a Application Map group. This is done by editing the features_applicationmap_custom.conf  file so it looks like below for example, at the top are your application maps then your group

testfeature => #9,callee,Playback,tt-monkeys 
calleehangup => #8,callee,Hangup()
callerhangup => #7,caller,Hangup()
[mymapgroup]
testfeature => #9
calleehangup => #8
callerhangup => #7
apprecord => *1

DO NOT FORGET to add the apprecord to your group.

You then need to edit the globals_custom.conf file and add a line like below

DYNAMIC_FEATURES => mymapgroup

Then reload asterisk and issue the command “features show”

Dynamic Feature           Default Current
---------------           ------- -------
callerhangup              no def  #7     
calleehangup              no def  #8     
testfeature               no def  #9     
apprecord                 no def  *1     
Feature Groups:
---------------
===> Group: mymapgroup
===> --> apprecord (*1,caller,Macro,one-touch-record)
===> --> callerhangup (#7)
===> --> calleehangup (#8)

and to check that they are loaded as a global variable do “dialplan show globals” and near or at the top you will see:-

 DYNAMIC_FEATURES=mymapgroup

And thats all there is to it.

Categories
Elastix Support Knowledge Base Technical

Setting the server domain in elastix correct for scripted email

We run many scripts on customer servers to email cdrs, backups etc, one problem with some mail servers is the mail gets rejected as it comes from root@elastixserver.yourdomain.com by default to fix this is simple and only takes a few lines.

Postfix MTA offers smtp_generic_maps parameter. You can specify lookup tables that replace local mail addresses by valid Internet addresses when mail leaves the machine via SMTP.

Open your main.cf file

# vi /etc/postfix/main.cf

Append following parameter

smtp_generic_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/generic

Save and close the file. Open /etc/postfix/generic file:

# vi /etc/postfix/generic

Make sure root@elastixserver.yourdomain.com change to elastixserver@yourdomain.com add :

root@elastixserver.yourdomain.com  elastixserver@yourdomain.com

Save and close the file. Create or update generic postfix table:

# postmap /etc/postfix/generic

Restart postfix:

# /etc/init.d/postfix restart

When mail is sent to a remote host via SMTP this replaces root@elastixserver.yourdomain.com by elastixserver@yourdomain.com mail address. You can use this trick to replace address with your ISP address if you are connected via local SMTP.

To set up gmail for delivery look at this

Categories
Peripherals Products

Algo 8128 SIP/VoIP Strobe light

Algo

The Algo 8128 SIP Strobe light is the ideal solution for visual ringing in such areas as noisy factories, cafeterias, and public areas.

Or alternatively it can also be used as a silent visual alert where loud ringing may be disruptive in areas such as hospitals, theatres and, churches etc.

Other applications include emergency and security notification where the press of a single phone key can be used to activate one or many strobe lights. And it can also be integrated within a Call Centre system to provide visual notification when queues and waiting times are exceeding there maximum thresholds

Algo 8128 SIP Strobe Light Key Features

  • 360° Visibility
    Flash patterns are visible in every direction or may be chosen specifically for ceiling and wall mount applications.
  • PoE SIP Endpoint with Web Interface
    Integrates easily into a VoIP Unified Communications environment, hosted or premise PBX.
  • Auto-Multicast
    Trigger one – trigger many. Multiple strobes may be operated simultaneously and synchronously using just one SIP extension.
  • Colourful Options
    Available blue, red, and amber caps to distinguish events in the workplace.
  • LEDs for High Intensity and Long Life
    The 8 brilliant LEDs splash 198 candela light in all directions with greater efficiency than xenon strobes.

Please call or email for pricing and avalibility

Categories
Asterisk Support Elastix Support Knowledge Base

Sip Config for Aretta CBeyond and Voiceflex with Asterisk

Since Version 1.8 in Asterisk we have seen some issues with DID calls from some suppliers.

The tell tail sign is that even though you have an inbound route that matches the DID it will still say in the verbose screen that nothing matched it in the inbound context, For example:-

Call from 'USERNAME' (XXX.XX.XXX.XX:5060) to extension '01234123412' rejected because extension not found in context 'from‐trunk'

and if you do “dialplan show 01234123412@from-trunk” sure enough there is one.

After much searching and experimentation below is a working freepbx config that has been tested with 1.8 and 11 and proves to be working with the suppliers above.

OUTBOUND

[peername]
username=USERNAME
type=peer
trustrpid=yes
sendrpid=yes
secret=PASSWORD
qualify=no
outboundproxy=sip.hostname.com
nat=yes
insecure=very
host=sip.hostname.com
fromdomain=sip.hostname.com
dtmfmode=auto
disallow=all
context=from-trunk
canreinvite=no
allow=ulaw
allow=alaw

INBOUND

[username]
type=peer
host=sip.hostname.com
dtmfmode=auto
disallow=all
context=from-trunk
canreinvite=no
allow=ulaw
allow=alaw

;registration string
USERNAME:PASSWORD@peername/USERNAME
Categories
Asterisk Support Elastix Support Knowledge Base

IAX2 Cause code

Here is a table of the IAX2 to assist with debugging IAX2 call issues

More IAX2 information can be found here and the RFC is here


CSV
 download is here
Number Cause Reference
1 Unassigned/unallocated number [RFC5457]
2 No route to specified transit network [RFC5457]
3 No route to specified transit network [RFC5457]
4-5 Unassigned
6 Channel unacceptable [RFC5457]
7 Call awarded and delivered [RFC5457]
8-15 Unassigned
16 Normal call clearing [RFC5457]
17 User busy [RFC5457]
18 No user response [RFC5457]
19 No answer [RFC5457]
20 Unassigned
21 Call rejected [RFC5457]
22 Number changed [RFC5457]
23-26 Unassigned
27 Destination out of order [RFC5457]
28 Invalid number format/incomplete number [RFC5457]
29 Facility rejected [RFC5457]
30 Response to status enquiry [RFC5457]
31 Normal, unspecified [RFC5457]
32-33 Unassigned
34 No circuit/channel available [RFC5457]
35-37 Unassigned
38 Network out of order [RFC5457]
39-40 Unassigned
41 Temporary failure [RFC5457]
42 Switch congestion [RFC5457]
43 Access information discarded [RFC5457]
44 Requested channel not available [RFC5457]
45 Pre-empted (causes.h only) [RFC5457]
46 Unassigned
47 Resource unavailable, unspecified (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
48-49 Unassigned
50 Facility not subscribed (causes.h only) [RFC5457]
51 Unassigned
52 Outgoing call barred (causes.h only) [RFC5457]
53 Unassigned
54 Incoming call barred (causes.h only) [RFC5457]
55-56 Unassigned
57 Bearer capability not authorized [RFC5457]
58 Bearer capability not available [RFC5457]
59-62 Unassigned
63 Service or option not available (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
64 Unassigned
65 Bearer capability not implemented [RFC5457]
66 Channel type not implemented [RFC5457]
67-68 Unassigned
69 Facility not implemented [RFC5457]
70 Only restricted digital information bearer capability is available (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
71-78 Unassigned
79 Service or option not available (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
80 Unassigned
81 Invalid call reference [RFC5457]
82 Identified channel does not exist (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
83 A suspended call exists, but this call identity does not (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
84 Call identity in use (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
85 No call suspended (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
86 Call has been cleared (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
87 Unassigned
88 Incompatible destination [RFC5457]
89-90 Unassigned
91 Invalid transit network selection (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
92-94 Unassigned
95 Invalid message, unspecified [RFC5457]
96 Mandatory information element missing (Q.931 only) [RFC5457]
97 Message type nonexistent/not implemented [RFC5457]
98 Message not compatible with call state [RFC5457]
99 Information element nonexistent [RFC5457]
100 Invalid information element contents [RFC5457]
101 Message not compatible with call state [RFC5457]
102 Recovery on timer expiration [RFC5457]
103 Mandatory information element length error (causes.h only) [RFC5457]
104-110 Unassigned
111 Protocol error, unspecified [RFC5457]
112-126 Unassigned
127 Internetworking, unspecified [RFC5457]
128-255 Unassigned